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"ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ (ПО ТЕМЕ: "АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНАЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА") С АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК"

учебно-методическое пособие

Автор: Рокотянская Мария Михайловна, старший преподаватель, МЭИ, Москва



В раздел высшее образование




УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ

ПОСОБИЕ

ПО ПРАКТИКЕ ПЕРЕВОДА

«ОСОБЕННОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА НАУЧНО-ПОПУЛЯРНЫХ

ТЕКСТОВ (ПО ТЕМЕ: «АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНАЯ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА»)

С АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА НА РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК»
Составитель: старший преподаватель Рокотянская Мария Михайловна Данный сборник предназначен для студентов, прошедших базовый курс обучения английскому языку, включающий основные знания в области грамматики, фонетики и лексики английского языка. Пособие предназначено для отработки навыков перевода научно-популярных текстов с английского языка на русский язык, а также правильного применения правил перевода английских заголовков на русский язык.

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Renewable energy
Renewable energy (sources) or RES capture their energy from existing flows of energy, from
on-going
natural processes, such as sunshine, wind, flowing water, biological processes, and geothermal heat flows. The most common definition is that renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced rapidly by a natural process such as power generated from the sun or from the wind. Most renewable forms of energy, other than geothermal and tidal power, ultimately come from the Sun. Some forms are stored solar energy such as rainfall and wind power which are considered
short-term solar-energy storage
, whereas the energy in biomass is accumulated over a period of months, as in straw, or through many years as in wood. Capturing renewable energy by plants, animals and humans does not permanently deplete the resource. Fossil fuels, while theoretically renewable on a very long time-scale, are exploited at rates that may deplete these resources in the near future. Renewable energy resources may be used directly, or used to create other more convenient forms of energy. Examples of direct use are solar ovens, geothermal heating, and water- and windmills.
Examples of indirect use which require
energy harvesting
are electricity generation through wind turbines or photovoltaic cells, or production of fuels such as ethanol from biomass. Deployment of renewable energy is expanding all over the world. There is high competition between
alternative land uses
, and conflicts over limited land are likely to emerge between biodiversity conservation and expanded deployment of renewable energy. Dr Andrea Santangeli in the University of Helsinki, Finland, and his colleagues in the UK have explored global expansion of land use for renewable energies versus biodiversity protection. They discovered that the conflicts and opportunities largely depend on the type of energy at stake, with bioenergy strongly conflicting with biodiversity protection while generating only limited power at a global level. Conversely, solar energy and, to a lower degree, wind energy, may provide relatively large power supplies with minimal impacts on biodiversity. "We found that using a very limited amount of land for generating energy from the sun can yield large amounts of power without impacting the best areas for biodiversity protection. However, this result only holds when restrictions on energy storage and transport are largely ignored, which is unrealistic in the short term. Indeed, these findings
highlight a major opportunity
when political will and improved technologies make it possible to harvest renewable energy without such restrictions," says Andrea Santangeli. Santangeli and colleagues also highlight that in the near future renewable energy most likely will not be able to make a very large contribution towards our total global energy consumption. So, other forms of energy still need to be considered.

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Better forecasting for solar and wind power generation
The sun does not shine and the wind does not blow with
constant intensity
. This is a problem for the power grid, where the power supply must always match the
power demand
. In the EWeLiNE project, Fraunhofer and the German Weather Service have been working to develop better models for forecasting the generation of renewable electricity. Now they have launched a platform for
transmission

system operators
to test the new models live. In the EWeLiNE project, the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES) in Kassel is working together with Germany's National Meteorological Service in Offenbach. The partners develop mathematical models that produce improved forecasts accurate for each quarter-hour, which show how much electricity Germany's installed photovoltaic and
wind-farm

facilities
will generate over the next few hours and days. "It's crucial for us to interconnect both worlds -- forecasts of weather and power -- more closely than before
, tailoring them better
to the requirements of the transmission system operators," says project manager Dr. MalteSiefert of IWES, describing the added value of the new models. These companies operate the major power lines in Germany that make up the 380- and 220-kV high-voltage grid. Transmission system operators are responsible for bringing electricity to consumers,
maintaining the power grid
, and expanding it as needed.
EnergyForecaster: Testing forecast models live
The project began at the end of 2012. Now the partners are releasing a demonstration platform called the EnergyForecaster, where transmission system operators can try out new forecasting tools live in their control centers. The companies know nearly precisely when and how much electricity consumers need
over the course of the day -- but they know only approximately how much photovoltaic systems and wind farms will feed into the grid. "It's important to forecast how much renewable power will be generated, because that tells us how much
conventional generation capacity
-- whether nuclear, gas, or coal -- needs to be brought online. At the same time, the forecast is necessary for calculations to
keep the power grid stable
and for
trading electricity
," explains Siefert. New kinds of forecasts available in the demonstration platform help transmission system operators calculate precisely how much wind and solar power
will be fed

into which grid nodes
. Other new tools feature information on the reliability of the forecasts. "The transmission system operators also have to be aware of any
critical

weather conditions
-- for example, patches of low stratus or low-pressure zones -- so they can better analyze and estimate the forecast results," says Siefert. The researchers also benefit from the EnergyForecaster, as it shows them how their innovations perform in the real world. "We believe that more potential for optimization, as yet unrecognized, will result," says Siefert.
1.9 million units included
"It's crucial to calculate precisely how the 1.9 million photovoltaic facilities and wind farms operating in Germany will convert the weather into electricity," says Siefert. The problem is that data are not available for all of the systems. "In some cases,
data privacy laws
prevent us from gaining access, while in others we simply lack the technology to continuously record how much power the unit feeds in," explains Siefert. IWES is designing mathematical models to improve the forecasts of all PV systems and wind farms in Germany. Researchers
reconcile the results
with existing data and optimize them for various applications. The scientists separate the more than 40 forecasts that transmission system operators currently use into 16 groups, then systematically improved them. "Our objective is to combine several different methods for each application to take advantage of their various strengths," says Siefert.
Meanwhile, the DWD is adapting its weather forecasts to meet the requirements of power forecasting. "We performed detailed meteorological analyses of the occasions when forecasts of power feed-ins to the grid proved most inaccurate. From these analyses we then
derived improvements to
our weather models," explains the DWD's Dr. Renate Hagedorn. "With the systematic adaptation of our weather forecasts as a basis for wind and photovoltaic power forecasts for the electric grid, the German weather service has taken on a new and supplementary role," explains Hagedorn.
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Fuel from sewage is the future -- and it's closer than

you think
Technology converts human waste into bio-based fuel. It may sound like science fiction, but wastewater treatment plants across the United States may one day turn ordinary sewage into
biocrude oil
, thanks to new research at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technology,
hydrothermal liquefaction
, mimics the geological conditions Earth uses to create crude oil, using high pressure and temperature to achieve in minutes something that takes Mother Nature millions of years. The resulting material is similar to petroleum pumped out of the ground, with a small amount of
water and oxygen mixed in
. This biocrude can then be refined using conventional petroleum refining operations. Wastewater treatment plants across the U.S. treat approximately 34 billion gallons of sewage every day. That amount could produce the equivalent of up to approximately 30 million barrels of oil per year. PNNL estimates that a single person could generate two to three gallons of biocrude per year.
Sewage, or more specifically sewage sludge, has long been viewed as a poor ingredient for producing biofuel because it's too wet. The
approach being studied
by PNNL eliminates the need for drying required in a majority of current thermal technologies which historically has made wastewater to fuel conversion too energy intensive and expensive. HTL may also be used to make fuel from other types of wet organic feedstock, such as agricultural waste. Using hydrothermal liquefaction, organic matter such as human waste can be
broken down to
simpler chemical compounds. The material is pressurized to 3,000 pounds per square inch -- nearly one hundred times that of a car tire. Pressurized sludge then goes into a reactor system operating at about 660 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat and pressure cause the cells of the waste material to break down into different fractions -- biocrude and an
aqueous liquid phase
. "There is plenty of carbon in municipal waste water sludge and interestingly, there are also fats," said Corinne Drennan, who is responsible for bioenergy technologies research at PNNL. "The fats or lipids appear to facilitate the conversion of other materials in the wastewater such as toilet paper, keep the sludge moving through the reactor, and produce a very high quality biocrude that, when refined, yields fuels such as gasoline, diesel and jet fuels." In addition to producing useful fuel, HTL could give local governments
significant

cost savings
by virtually eliminating the need for sewage residuals processing, transport and disposal. "The best thing about this process is how simple it is," said Drennan. "The reactor is literally a hot, pressurized tube. We've really accelerated hydrothermal conversion technology over the last six years to create a continuous, and scalable process which allows the use of wet wastes like sewage sludge." An independent assessment for the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation calls HTL a highly disruptive technology that has potential for treating wastewater solids. WE&RF investigators noted the process has high carbon conversion
efficiency with nearly 60 percent of available carbon in primary sludge becoming bio-crude. The report calls for further demonstration, which may soon be in the works. PNNL has licensed its HTL technology to Utah-based Genifuel Corporation, which is now working with Metro Vancouver, a partnership of 23 local authorities in British Columbia, Canada, to build a
demonstration plant.
"Metro Vancouver hopes to be the first
wastewater treatment utility
in North America to
host hydrothermal liquefaction
at one of its treatment plants," said Darrell Mussatto, chair of Metro Vancouver's Utilities Committee. "The pilot project will cost between $8 to $9 million (Canadian) with Metro Vancouver providing nearly one-half of the cost directly and the remaining balance subject to external funding."
Once funding is in place
, Metro Vancouver plans to move to the design phase in 2017, followed by equipment fabrication, with start-up occurring in 2018. "If this emerging technology is a success, a future production facility could lead the way for Metro Vancouver's wastewater operation to meet its sustainability objectives of zero
net energy
, zero odours and zero residuals," Mussatto added. In addition to the biocrude, the liquid phase can be treated with a catalyst to create other fuels and chemical products. A small amount of solid material is also generated, which contains important nutrients. For example, early efforts have demonstrated the ability to recover phosphorus, which can replace phosphorus ore used in fertilizer production.

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Rewritable material could help reduce paper waste
Even in today's digital age, the world still relies on paper and ink, most of which ends up in landfills or recycling centers. To reduce this waste, scientists have now developed a low-cost, environmentally friendly way to create printed materials with rewritable paper. Their report on the material, which is made out of
tungsten

oxide
and a common polymer used in medicines and food, appears in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. The U.S. has been working to reduce paper waste by increasing recycling efforts for years. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, more paper is now recovered for recycling than almost all other materials combined. This saves energy, water, landfill space and
greenhouse gas emissions
. But even more waste could be avoided if consumers could reuse paper many times before recycling or
trashing
it. So far, however, such products under development often are made with toxic, expensive organic dyes. Ting Wang, Dairong Chen and colleagues wanted to come up with a better solution. The researchers created a film by mixing low-toxicity tungsten oxide with polyvinyl pyrrolidone. To "print" on it, they exposed the material to ultraviolet light for 30 seconds or more, and it changed from white to a deep blue. To make pictures or words, a stencil can be used so that only the exposed parts turn blue. To erase them, the material can simply sit in ambient conditions for a day or two. To speed up the erasing, the researchers added heat to make the color disappear in 30 minutes. Alternatively, adding a small amount of polyacrylonitrile to the material can make designs last for up to 10 days. Testing showed the material could be printed on and erased 40 times before the quality started to decline.

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Can we meet global energy demands with nuclear

power?
An international team of scientists suggests that we
must ramp up
energy production by nuclear power if we are to
succeed in warding off
the worst effects of greenhouse gas emissions on climate change. Writing in the International Journal of Global Energy Issues, the team suggests that beginning in 2020 we could achieve an annual electricity output of 20 terawatts without needing to develop carbon dioxide trapping and storage technology for the tens of billions of tons of emissions that would otherwise drive global warming to catastrophic levels. HerveNifenecker of the Universitéinterages du Dauphine, in Grenoble, France and honorary chairman of "Sauvons Le Climat" and colleagues in Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, France, India, Singapore, and the USA, explain how solutions to the problem of climate change developed in the wake of requirements established by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) make various assumptions we might not be able to address. One scenario involves attempting to capture and store carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels, coal, natural gas, and oil, in power stations and vehicles. However, the quantities involved amount to a
massive geological-scale engineering
effort even at today's emission rates based on rising energy requirements. The team also points out that if we renounce nuclear power as an option, then aside from the storage needs of carbon dioxide emissions, the international demand for electricity will fall short by about 40% over the period 2020 to 2100. It is unlikely that such a scenario will be accepted by developed and developing nations alike. Several large, highly populated nations, such as China and the US are forecast to need more and more power over the coming years. The uptake of sustainable, non-
carbon alternatives power sources such as wind, solar, tidal and other technologies seem not to be adopted at the requisite rates to keep up with needs and are limited by physical factors such as their random production, despite the best efforts of environmental lobbyists. "An accelerated development of nuclear electricity production, starting as soon as 2020, would significantly
alleviate the constraints
required to stabilise global temperatures before 2100," the team reports. "The carbon dioxide volume to be stored would be divided by at least a factor of 2.5 and might even prove unnecessary. The constraints on the development of expansive and intermittent renewable electricity techniques might also be lessened," the team adds. Their research suggests that it should be physically and economically plausible to multiply by a factor of fifty the production of nuclear energy by 2100, leading to a complete elimination of fossil fuels wherein 60% of electricity demand is met through nuclear and the remainder through sustainable technology. Despite tabloid hyperbole surrounding nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima, the long- term health effects of these accidents are negligible compared with the chronic pollution of coal-fired power stations. It might even be said that nuclear energy is
the most benign way
of producing electricity in terms of environmental health and biodiversity. "Nuclear power could both answer the climate challenge and give a perennial solution to humanity's energy needs for thousands of years," the team concludes.
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Physics, photosynthesis and solarcells
A University of California, Riverside assistant professor has combined photosynthesis and physics to make a key discovery that could help make solar
cells more efficient. The findings were recently published in the journal Nano Letters. Nathan Gabor is focused on experimental condensed matter physics, and uses light to probe the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics. But, he got interested in photosynthesis when a
question popped into his head
in 2010: Why are plants green? He soon discovered that no one really knows. During the past six years, he sought to help change that by combining his background in physics with
a deep dive into biology
. He set out to
re-think solar energy conversion
by asking the question: can we make materials for solar cells that more efficiently absorb the fluctuating amount of energy from the sun. Plants have evolved to do this, but
current affordable

solarcells
-- which are at best 20 percent efficient -- do not control these sudden changes in solar power, Gabor said. That results in a lot of wasted energy and helps prevent
wide-scale adoption of solar cells
as an energy source. Gabor, and several other UC Riverside physicists, addressed the problem by designing a new type of quantum heat engine photocell, which helps manipulate the flow of energy in solar cells. The design incorporates a heat engine photocell that
absorbs photons
from the sun and converts the photon energy into electricity. Surprisingly, the researchers found that the
quantum heat engine photocell
could regulate solar power conversion without requiring active feedback or adaptive control mechanisms. In conventional photovoltaic technology, which is used on rooftops and solar farms today, fluctuations in solar power must be suppressed by voltage converters and feedback controllers, which dramatically reduce the overall efficiency. The goal of the UC Riverside teams was to design the simplest photocell that matches the amount of solar power from the sun as close as possible to the average power demand and to suppress energy fluctuations to avoid the accumulation of excess energy.
The researchers compared the two simplest quantum mechanical photocell systems: one in which the photocell absorbed only a single color of light, and the other in which the photocell absorbed two colors. They found that by simply incorporating two
photon-absorbing channels
, rather than only one, the regulation of energy flow emerges naturally within the photocell. The basic operating principle is that one channel absorbs at a wavelength for which the average input power is high, while the other absorbs at low power. The photocell switches between high and low power to convert varying levels of solar power into a
steady-state output
. When Gabor's team applied these simple models to the measured solar spectrum on Earth's surface, they discovered that the absorption of green light, the most radiant portion of the solar power spectrum per unit wavelength, provides no regulatory benefit and should therefore be avoided. They systematically optimized the photocell parameters to reduce solar energy fluctuations, and found that the absorption spectrum looks nearly identical to the absorption spectrum observed in photosynthetic green plants. The findings led the researchers to propose that natural regulation of energy they found in the quantum heat engine photocell may play a critical role in the photosynthesis in plants, perhaps explaining the predominance of green plants on Earth. Other researchers have recently found that several molecular structures in plants, including chlorophyll a and b molecules, could be critical in preventing the accumulation of excess energy in plants, which could kill them. The UC Riverside researchers found that the molecular structure of the quantum heat engine photocell they studied is very similar to the structure of photosynthetic molecules that incorporate pairs of chlorophyll. The hypothesis set out by Gabor and his team is the first to connect quantum mechanical structure to the greenness of plants, and provides a clear set of tests for researchers aiming to verify natural regulation. Equally important, their design
allows regulation without active input, a process made possible by the photocell's quantum mechanical structure.
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Game changer for organic solar cells
With a new technique for manufacturing single-layer organic polymer solar cells, scientists at UC Santa Barbara and three other universities might very well move organic photovoltaics into a whole new generation of
wearable devices
and enable
small-scale distributed power generation
. The simple doping solution-based process involves briefly immersing organic semiconductor films in a solution at room temperature. This technique, which could replace a more complex approach that requires vacuum processing, has the potential to affect many device platforms, including organic printed electronics, sensors, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. The researchers' findings appear in the journal Nature Materials. "Because the new process is simple to use, general in terms of applicability and should be configurable into mass productions, it has the potential to greatly accelerate the
widespread implementation of plastic electronics
, of which solar cells are one example," said co-author Guillermo Bazan, director of UCSB's Center for Polymers and Organic Solids. "One can see impacts in technologies ranging from light-emitting devices to transistors to transparent solar cells that can be incorporated into building design or greenhouses." Studied in many academic and industrial laboratories for two decades, organic solar cells have experienced a continuous and steady improvement in their power conversion efficiency with laboratory values reaching 13 percent compared to around 20 percent for commercial silicon-based cells. Though polymer-based cells
are currently less efficient, they require less energy to produce than silicon cells and can be more easily recycled at the end of their lifetimes. This new method, which provides a way of
inducing p-type electrical dopi
ng in organic semiconductor films, offers a simpler alternative to the air-sensitive molybdenum oxide layers used in the most efficient polymer solar cells. Thin films of organic semiconductors and their blends are immersed in polyoxometalate solutions in nitromethane for a brief time -- on the order of minutes. The geometry of these new devices is unique as the functions of hole and electron collection are built into the light-absorbing active layer, resulting in the simplest single-layer geometry with few interfaces. "High-performing organic solar cells require a multiple layer device structure," said co-author Thuc-Quyen Nguyen, a professor in UCSB's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. "The realization of single-layer photovoltaics with our approach will simplify the
device fabrication process
and therefore should reduce the cost. The initial lifetime testing of these single layer devices is promising. This exciting development will help transform organic photovoltaics into a commercial technology." Organic solar cells are unique within the context of providing transparent, flexible and easy-to-fabricate energy-producing devices. These could result in a host of novel applications, such as energy-harvesting windows and films that enable zero- cost farming by creating greenhouses that support crops and produce energy at the same time.

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Breakthrough offers greater understanding of safe

radioactive waste disposal
A group of scientists from The University of Manchester, the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and the UK's synchrotron science facility, Diamond Light Source, has completed research into radioactively contaminated material to gain further understanding around the issue, crucial for the safe and more efficient completion of
future decommissioning projects
. Safely decommissioning the legacy of radioactively contaminated facilities from nuclear energy and weapons production is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st Century. Current estimates suggest
clean-up
of the UK's nuclear legacy will cost around £117bn and take decades to complete. The team identified a concrete core taken from the structure of a nuclear fuel cooling pond contaminated with radioactive isotopes of caesium and strontium, located at the former Hunterston A, Magnox nuclear power station in Ayrshire. The core, which was coated and painted, was taken to the Diamond synchrotron for further analysis. Strontium is a
high yield nuclear fission product
in nuclear reactors and tests showed that it was bonded to the titanium oxide found in the white pigment of the paint on the concrete core's coating. By identifying the specific location of the radioactive isotopes, the research makes future investigation easier and could potentially leads to more efficient decontamination, saving millions of pounds by reducing the volume of our radioactive waste.
The work also found that the
painted and rubberised under layers
were intact and the paint had acted as a sealant for 60 years. However, experiments were conducted to examine what would happen if the contaminated pond water had breached the coating. It showed that the strontium would be bound strongly to the materials in the cement but the caesium was absorbed by clays and iron oxides forming part of the rock fragments in the concrete. Professor Richard Pattrick, leading the project from The University of Manchester's Dalton Nuclear Institute stated: "This work shows the power of the techniques available at the Diamond synchrotron to
meet the challenge of

cleaning up our nuclear legacy
and the University is working very closely with Diamond to develop facilities to support research across the whole of the nuclear industry" Professor Anthony Banford, Chief Technologist for Waste Management and Decommissioning at NNL, commented: "This research project has demonstrated that collaboration with academia, industry and Diamond scientists, utilising the national scientific infrastructure delivers high quality research with industrial relevance and impact." Professor Andrew Harrison, CEO of Diamond Light Source said: "Diamond is very pleased to have facilitated this
decommissioning-related research
and one major component of our future development plans is to help the UK address the complex and varied challenges of the nuclear industry."




В раздел высшее образование